The medical term 'Diabetes Mellitus' is derived from the Greek words 'syphon' and 'sugar', describing symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes, passing huge amounts of urine containing sugar-glucose.
Diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels due to a lack or insufficient production of a hormone called insulin in the body. Insulin is responsible for decreasing the blood sugar levels and aids in producing energy for the cells. Without enough insulin, glucose obtained from the food builds up in the blood stream leading to a hike in blood sugar levels above than the normal limits. This causes many health complications.
It is a lifelong condition that can be managed with careful diet control and proper medication (either oral medication or insulin) under your physician's and dietitian's supervision.
We eat rice, bread, fruit, vegetables, sweets, meat, butter, eggs, etc. Of these, the group called carbohydrates, found usually in wheat, rice, fruits and potatoes is converted into glucose or sugar. Glucose is the energy supplier to all body cells, which in turn powers and runs the whole human body. The extra glucose is stored in the liver and muscles.
Now, glucose can't just go straight into the cells, as on the surface of the cell wall, there are receptors, the proteins. Hormones in the body can act on cells through receptors. Glucose enters cells only if insulin, which is a hormone, attaches itself to the receptor cell wall. By going and attaching itself like a magnet to the receptors, insulin helps cells to extract glucose from the blood.
When there is absolutely no insulin supply or if it is insufficient or the quality is poor or abnormal, the glucose can't enter your cells. Consequently, there is not enough energy to run your body and everything begins to shut down and you become a diabetic.
What is Insulin?
Insulin comes from the pancreas, a six-inch long gland, about 100 gm, placed behind your stomach between the kidneys.
In healthy people, the pancreas produces many fluids and enzymes, one of them being insulin.
In a person with diabetes, the pancreas produces no insulin or not enough or the quality of insulin produced is not good. And, in all these cases, it shows that there is something wrong with your system, it's not normal. The end result being glucose floats around in your bloodstream, at different levels, unable to enter cells, get processed and converted into energy to run the body. So, all this excess sugar remains in your blood.